Morphogenesis/table 1

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    The morphogenetic toolkit

    This table summarises the sorts of mechanisms that cells use to organise themselves into tissues

    cell typepropertymechanismexamplereference
    mesenchyme movementcontact guidancefish fin invasion Wood & Thorogood (1984)
    (nerves) haptotaxis pronephros elongation Zackson & Steinberg (1987)
    contact inhibition/space colonisation NC invasion of cornea Bard, Hay & Meller (1975)
    pigment patterning Tucker & Erickson (1986)
    cell repulsion NC blockage in posterior somite Wang & Anderson (1997)
    chemotaxisneuronal migration in spinal cordCharron et al (2003)
    chemorepulsionoligodendracite dispersalTsai et al (2003)
    epithelium to mesenchyme transitioninitiation of neural crest migrationCheung et al (2005)
    apoptosisloss of Mullerian ductRoberts et al (1999)
    condensation formationmigrationganglion formation by neural crest cellsLallier & Bronner-Fraser (1988)
    adhesiondermal condensationsJiang & Chuong (1992)
    tractioncell aggregation Oster et al (1985)
    loss of ECMlimb pre-cartilage condensationsLi et al (2007)
    cell sortingcelll-cell-adhesiionDrosphila egg chamber organisatonBecam et al (2005)
    cell focusingC elegans embryogensisSchnabel et al (2006)
    epitheliamesnchyme-to-epithelium transitionpolarisationnephron lumen formationStark et al (1995)
    forming foldsbucklingciliary body formationBard & Ross (1982)
    human brain formationArmstrong et al (1995)
    bending of sheetneural fold formationMoury & Schoenwolf (1995)
    invaginationsea urchin gastrulationDavidson et al (1995)
    forming tubescavitationneural tubeSchoenwolf (1983)
    tube branchingsignallingtracheaSakiyama et al (2000)
    blood vessel branchingRuhrberg et al (2002)
    boundary formationeph-ephrin intreactionszebrafish modelMellitzer et al 1999
    movementpassive growthserosa migration in honey beeFleig & Sander (1988)
    convergent extensiondrosophila limb extensionFristom et al (1977)
    sea urchin gastrulationHardin (1989)
    epibolyearly fish developmentTrinkaus (1992)
    contact inhibitioncompletion of wound healingRadice (1980)

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    Armstrong E, Schleicher A, Omran H, Curtis M, Zilles K. (1995) The ontogeny of human gyrification. Cereb Cortex. 5:56-63.

    Bard JBL, Hay ED, Meller SM. (1975) Formation of the endothelium of the avian cornea: a study of cell movement in vivo. Dev Biol.;42(2):334-61.

    Bard JBL, Gordon A., Sharp L, Sellers WI (2001) Early nephron formation in the developing mouse kidney. J. Anat. 199, 385-392.

    Bard JBL, Ross AS. (1982) The morphogenesis of the ciliary body of the avian eye. II. Differential enlargement causes an epithelium to form radial folds. Dev Biol.; 92:87-96.

    Becam IE, Tanentzapf G, Lepesant JA, Brown NH, Huynh JR. (2005) Integrin-independent repression of cadherin transcription by talin during axis formation in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 7:510-6

    Charron F, Stein E, Jeong J, McMahon AP, Tessier-Lavigne M. (2003) The morphogen sonic hedgehog is an axonal chemoattractant that collaborates with netrin-1 in midline axon guidance. Cell;113(1):11-23.

    Cheung M, Chaboissier MC, Mynett A, Hirst E, Schedl A, Briscoe J. (2005) The transcriptional control of trunk neural crest induction, survival, and delamination. Dev Cell.;8(2):179-92.

    Davidson LA, Koehl MA, Keller R, Oster GF. (1995) How do sea urchins invaginate? Using biomechanics to distinguish between mechanisms of primary invagination. Development. 121:2005-18.

    Fleig R Sander K (1988)Honeybee morphogenesis: embyonic cell movements that shape the larval body. Developnent 103:525-534

    Fristrom JW, Fristrom D, Fekete E, Kuniyuki AH (1977). The mechanism of of evagination of imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogasts. Am Zool.: 17: 671-684

    Hardin J. (1989) Local shifts in position and polarized motility drive cell rearrangement during sea urchin gastrulation. Dev Biol. 136:430-45.

    Jiang TX, Chuong CM. (1992) Mechanism of skin morphogenesis. I. Analyses with antibodies to adhesion molecules tenascin, N-CAM, and integrin. Dev Biol.;150(1):82-98.

    Lallier TE, Bronner-Fraser M. (1988) A spatial and temporal analysis of dorsal root and sympathetic ganglion formation in the avian embryo. Dev Biol.;127(1):99-112 Li Y, Toole BP, Dealy CN, Kosher RA. (2007) Hyaluronan in limb morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007:411-20.

    Mellitzer G, Xu Q, Wilkinson DG. (1999) Eph receptors and ephrins restrict cell intermingling and communication. Nature. 400:77-81

    Moury JD, Schoenwolf GC. (1995) Cooperative model of epithelial shaping and bending during avian neurulation: autonomous movements of the neural plate, autonomous movements of the epidermis, and interactions in the neural plate/epidermis transition zone. Dev Dyn. 204:323-37.

    Oster GF, Murray JD, Maini PK. (1985) A model for chondrogenic condensations in the developing limb: the role of extracellular matrix and cell tractions. J Embryol Exp Morphol.;89:93-112.

    Radice GP (1980)The spreading of epithelial cells during wound closure in Xenopus larvae. Dev. Bio., 376:26-46

    Roberts LM, Hirokawa Y, Nachtigal MW, Ingraham HA. (1999) Paracrine-mediated apoptosis in reproductive tract development. Dev Biol.;208(1):110-22

    Ruhrberg C, Gerhardt H, Golding M, Watson R, Ioannidou S, Fujisawa H, Betsholtz C, Shima DT. (2002) Spatially restricted patterning cues provided by heparin-binding VEGF-A control blood vessel branching morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 16: 2684-98.

    Sakiyama J, Yokouchi Y, Kuroiwa A. (2000) Coordinated expression of Hoxb genes and signaling molecules during development of the chick respiratory tract. Dev Biol. 227:12-27

    Schnabel R, Bischoff M, Hintze A, Schulz AK, Hejnol A, Meinhardt H, Hutter H. (2006) Global cell sorting in the C. elegans embryo defines a new mechanism for pattern formation. Dev Biol. Jun 15;294(2):418-3

    Schoenwolf GC. (1983). The chick epiblast: a model for examining epithelial morphogenesis. Scan Electron Microsc 3:1371-85. Stark K, Vainio S, Vassileva G, McMahon AP. (1994) Epithelial transformation of metanephric mesenchyme in the developing kidney regulated by Wnt-4. Nature. 372:679-8.

    Trinkaus, JB (1992) Mechanisms of fundulus epiboly: a current view. Am. Zool. 24: 673-688

    Tsai HH, Tessier-Lavigne M, Miller RH. (2003) Netrin 1 mediates spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor dispersal. Development.;130(10):2095-105

    Tucker RP, Erickson CA. (1986) The control of pigment cell pattern formation in the California newt, Taricha torosa. J Embryol Exp Morphol.:141-68.

    Wang HU, Anderson DJ. (1997) Eph family transmembrane ligands can mediate repulsive guidance of trunk neural crest migration and motor axon outgrowth. Neuron.:383-96.

    Wood A, Thorogood P. (1984) An analysis of in vivo cell migration during teleost fin morphogenesis. J Cell Sci.;66:205-22.

    Zackson SL, Steinberg MS. (1987) Chemotaxis or adhesion gradient? Pronephric duct elongation does not depend on distant sources of guidance information. Dev Biol;124(2):418-22.

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