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    Welcome to Scholarpedia

    the peer-reviewed open-access encyclopedia,
    where knowledge is curated by communities of experts.

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    Academics author encyclopedic articles on the subject areas they know best.

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    Each article undergoes scholarly peer-review and, if accepted, is published.

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    As the field advances, an expert curator vets article revisions.

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    Adler sum rule

    Scholarpedia, 4(8):8653 (2009)

    Stephen L. Adler

    Dr. Stephen L. Adler (b. 1939 Nov 30) was born in New York City. After graduating from Harvard in 1961 he went on to Princeton for a Ph.D. in elementary particle physics. By 1964 he had received his Ph.D., and after two years as a Junior Fellow at Harvard joined the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, becoming New Jersey Albert Einstein Professor in 1979.

    Adler received recognition early on as a Putnam Fellow at Harvard. Other major awards have included the J.J. Sakurai Prize of the American Physical Society in 1988 and the Dirac Medal of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics in 1998. He is also a Member of the National Academy of Sciences, and a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

    Adler's work on high energy neutrino processes, soft pion theorems, current algebras, perturbation theory anomalies, and sum rules have played a major role in the current standard model of elementary particle physics.

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    Each week Scholarpedia recognizes a different contributing author by featuring a short bio of them on the home page.

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    Focused encyclopedias are published by Springer/Atlantis Press as printed volumes. The first printed volume is....

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      Image by Atlantis Press licensed under CC BY 4.0, copyright 2016.

      Scholarpedia of Touch

      Tony J. Prescott, Ehud Ahissar, and Eugene Izhikevich, Eds. (2016). Scholarpedia of Touch. Paris: Atlantis Press.

      Touch is the ability to understand the world through physical contact. The noun “touch” and the verb “to touch” derive from the Old French verb “tochier”. Touch perception is also described by the adjectives tactile from more Icon more.png

    • Image by Springer/Atlantis Press licensed under CC BY 4.0, copyright 2016.

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      Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture

      Denis Ullmo (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(9):31721.

      In their seminal 1984 paper Bohigas, Giannoni and Schmit (1984-a) (see also Bohigas, Giannoni and Schmit 1984-b), stated a conjecture... more Icon more.png

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      Evolutionary Robotics

      Fernando Silva et al. (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(7):33333.

      Evolutionary robotics is a field of research that employs evolutionary computation to generate robots that adapt to... more Icon more.png

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      High energy cosmic rays

      Lu Lu and Alan Watson (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(7):32454.

      Cosmic rays with the kinetic energy of a well-hit tennis ball strike the top of the earth’s atmosphere about 10 times every second... more Icon more.png

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      The LHCb experiment

      Fatima Soomro and PierLuigi Campana (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(7):32452.

      The dominance of matter in our Universe is one of the deepest mysteries in Nature. According to theoretical models, matter and anti-matter... more Icon more.png

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      Rare decays of b hadrons

      Patrick Koppenburg et al. (2016), Scholarpedia, 11(6):32643.

      Physics studies fundamental interactions and their effects. At the most basic level, particle physics aims to describe the fundamental blocks of... more Icon more.png

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