# Help:Instructions for authors (Physics)

See Help:Contents for all help pages

These instructions for authors aim to be a quick, self-contained and ---hopefully--- useful guidelines for Scholarpedia authors that have no knowledge in wikitext writing.

In the following the reader will find:

• An introduction to some elementary actions he/she should master to become an editor--independent author.
• An introduction to Scholarwiki, the dialect of wikitext markup language on which articles are written in Scholarpedia.
• A review of the editorial conventions in use in Scholarpedia.
• An overview of the administrative procedures.
• A commented list of links for the reader wanting to improve his/her knowledge.

Remarks

• This is a help page: do not use it as an example of encyclopedic article.
• Please correct misprint or signal them to help@scholarpedia.org

Notations

The following conventions will be adopted:

• Important remarks you are supposed to read and ---hopefully--- to remember are written like this line.
• the wikitext [[code]] you have to write verbatim in the source page is written like this line
• Advanced sections that can be skipped at a first lecture are marked by (*)

# Author's everyday--actions

Here is a list of the actions you should master before writing anything.

• To contact the sponsors/editors: send an email to the sponsor/editor who invited you.
• To sign in: click on the sign-in link on the top right zone of the page and write your Scholarpedia user--name and Scholarpedia password in the correspondent boxes. If you do not have/remember your user--name or password contact the sponsors/editors. In the following we will assume that you have signed in: to check this you should see your user name on the top right zone of the page.
• To search an article page: type one or more words in the title on the search--scholarpedia box the top-right corner of Scholarpedia page.
• To edit a page/article: click on the edit--this--article tab on the top of each page. After modifying the wikitext, do not forget to click the save button to save and archive the article. Each time you preview the article a temporary cache copy is saved (overwriting the previous one); you are nevertheless advised to frequently save the article. If you really do not want to save modifications and just quit the article, press the cancel link on the bottom of the page to delete all eventual changes.
• To view the source code of a page: search for the page, and proceed like editing the page, but at the end click the cancel link on the bottom of the page to delete eventual changes.

### The built--in on--line editor

Figure 1: Mediawiki editor toolbar

When editing a page, on the top of the page you have some iconized buttons that can help you in reducing editing, see Figure \figref{SP_edit_menu.png}. From left to right the button action on the selected text is the following: Bold, Italic, Internal link, External link, Section, Image, Media,math--tag,nowiki-tag. Try and use them!. For further reading look at http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Help:Edit_toolbar.

### Off--line editors

We advice you to learn Scholarwiki and to use the on--line editor. FIXME

### Converters to wikitext

For short bits of text, you can use an online Latex to wikitext converter: [1], [2] .

When the editor created your account, a user--page was automatically created for you. We ask you to put there a mini-CV, fields of research, best articles, awards, books you wrote, a picture and other scientific informations you'll like.

• To reach a user--page: type User:USER_NAME in the search box in the top--left part of any page and follow the proposed blu link.
• To reach your user--page:, if you are logged--in just click on the link with your user name in the top--right corner of any page.
• To edit your user--page: reach your user--page and proceed as for editing a page.
• To see an example of user--page: click this link to see an example of user--page
• To change preferences, including the spelling of your name, your affiliation, email, password, the size of the edit window, your self--imposed deadline and other preferences, click on the preferences link at the top--right corner in your user--page. If you do not see this link it means that you are not logged in: sign in and restart. See Scholarpedia:User_preferences_help for a detailed review of available preferences.

### Special pages

Have a look at http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Special:Specialpages, you will find some useful information and many tools.

# Introduction to Scholarwiki

## Basics of Scholarwiki

Web pages in Scholarpedia (including encyclopedic articles) are written in a dialect of the wikitext markup language, to which we refer here as Scholarwiki. The software that runs Scholarwiki is a development branch of a version of Mediawiki, a wonderful open source software that implements the wikitext dialect used in Wikipedia. For this reason Scholarwiki and plain Mediawiki (to which we refer as Mediawiki) are pretty similar but not totally identical, meaning that some advanced features of Mediawiki might be absent in Scholarwiki and vice versa.

### Paragraphs, white space and indentation

• A carriage return at the end of the line (new line) is ignored in layout.
• Paragraphs and other structures are separated by white lines. Contrary to LaTeX, the more white lines you leave, the more vertical space is skipped.
• New paragraphs are not indented by default. To indent a new paragraph start it with :, ::, ::: according to the wanted indentation.
• If the first character of a non empty new paragraph is a white space you get a colored box useful for source code.Pay attention, starting a new paragraph with an unwanted white space is a typical error.
This line started with a space. Remark the different fonts-style and background color.

• A source code box can also be obtained by using the <pre> tag: typing <pre> a=1; b+=a;</pre> you get
 a=1; b+=a;
• To force a line break in the layout without leaving a white line write
• White space inside a line is not semantically relevant: you type a b c  you get a b c
• To add a comment in your wikitext that should not be shown include it inside <!-- -->. You type <!-- nothing --> you get

### Text layout

• To have an italic text type ''italic text''.
• To have a bold text type '''bold text'''.
• To have an italic+bold text type '''''italic+bold text'''''.

### Sections

• To get a section title, use == section title == in a new line.
• To get a subsection title, use === subsection title === in a new line.
• To get a subsubsection title, use ==== subsubsection title ==== in a new line.

### Bulleted Lists

To get a one-level bulleted list place a * at the beginning of each line. Higher level items are obtained by use of **, ***,...

You Get You Type
• one
• two
• three
• three.one
• three.two
• three.three
• three.three.one
• three.three.two
• three.three.three

this is the end of the list

* one
* two
* three
** three.one
** three.two
** three.three
*** three.three.one
*** three.three.two
*** three.three.three
this is the end of the list


### Numbered Lists

To get a one-level numbered list place a # at the beginning of each line. Higher level items are obtained by use of ##, ###,...

You Get You Type
1. one
2. two
3. three
1. three.one
2. three.two
3. three.three
1. three.three.one
2. three.three.two
3. three.three.three

this is the end of the list

# one
# two
# three
## three.one
## three.two
## three.three
### three.three.one
### three.three.two
### three.three.three
this is the end of the list


### Subscripts and superscripts

• To make a subscript, use the <sub> </sub> brackets. For example, I<sub>Ca</sub> appears as ICa.
• To make a superscript, use the <sup> </sup> brackets. For example, Ca<sup>2+</sup> appears as Ca2+.

Do not use HTML tags for math equations, even simple ones. In the future, Scholarpedia will have wikitext->latex->pdf converter, so having all equations in latex would result in more consistent texts.

### Mediawiki syntax (*)

Mediawiki and Scholarwiki markup languages are quite rich. They admit:

• MediaWiki tokens: i.e. symbols like =,----,=#...Their meaning is position dependent.
• MediaWiki "magic words": like __NOTOC__.
• MediaWiki links: like [[Instructions for authors|text]].
• MediaWiki templates: like  {{templateName|p1|p2|p3}} where templateName is the name of the template and p1,p2,p3 its parameters,separated by the pipe "|" .
• MediaWiki variables: like {{templateName}} are templates with no arguments
• MediaWiki parser functionslike  {{functionName:variable}}
• XHTML symbols like &SymbolName; with SymbolName=hearts (♥),Psi (Ψ), euro (€), amp (&)...
• XML tags like <Tag> ... </Tag> with Tag=nowiki,math,...

A link is a tool to redirect the reader's browser to some place in the same page (in--page link), in other pages in Scholarpedia (internal link) or on an web page external to Scholarpedia (external link). The link layout is usually an underlined blue text on which the reader have to click to be redirected.

If you write in the text a sequence of words that matches the title of an existing article in Scholarpedia, the autolinker tool will create an automatic internal link to it. The autolinker tries to match the longest title first. E.g., the phrase "..using attractor reconstruction method.." will result in the autolink to attractor reconstruction, and not to attractor.

This feature is very useful but in some cases the autolinker could redirect to an existing article that has nothing to do with your subject. If this happens please inform your editor: he will create a disambiguation page to deal with the conflicting topics.

You can control the autolinking process using the "magic word" __AUTOLINKER{n|title1|title2|...|titleN} placed anywhere in the article. The first argument, a non-negative integer n, limits the number of autolinks to any particular title. The other arguments, separated by the pipe "|" are the titles of the article that should be excluded from the autolinking process.

• The default state is __AUTOLINKER{1}, i.e., only the first match for any title is converted to a link to this title.
• Using __AUTOLINKER{1|title1|title2}  will create a link for all first match of a title apart "title1" and "title2".
• Using  __AUTOLINKER{0} will turn off the autolinker.

• The general syntax is: [[Title of the target page| text to be shown]]. Please remark the separating pipe "|".
• The simplified syntax is [[Title of the target page]].In this case the text shown coincides with the page title.
• If the target page exists the text is shown in blue or violet. If the page does not exists the text is rendered in red (broken link).
• If when writing your article you feel that some correlated articles are necessary, but they do not exists, create a user--defined link to each article you need. The editors will see the broken links and they will try to invite authors for those articles.
• A link to the section "my section" of some page is obtained by using: [[Title of the target page#my section| text to be shown]] or [[Title of the target pagee#my section]]. If the section does not exists the link is to the top of the page.
• An in--page link to "my section" is obtained by [[#my section| text to be shown]] or by [[#my section]].

You Get You Type

Nice reference: here.

Nice reference: [[Main page| here]].

Nice reference: Main page.

Nice reference: [[Main page]].

Nice reference: Main poge.

Nice reference: [[Main poge]].

Nice reference: here.

Nice reference: [[Main page#Curatorship| here]].

Nice reference: Main page#Curatorship.

Nice reference: [[Main page#Curatorship]].

[[#Figures | In--page link to section figures]]

In--page link to section figures: #Figures.

In--page link to section figures: [[#Figures]].

### User--defined Anchors (*)

The code <span id="mylabel">blabla</span>, resulting in blabla , creates an invisible "anchor" with label "mylabel" in correspondence of the text "blabla" (i.e. the text "blabla" becomes linkable). You can can create a link to an anchor with label "mylabel" in some Scholarpedia page named "mypage" by using the code [[mypage#mylabel| some text]]. The code [[#mylabel| some text here]] creates a link towards an anchor with label "mylabel" in the same page. Coming back to previous example, the code [[#mylabel| link to blabla ]] gives link to blabla .

When creating a reference with the Scholarwiki template Bibitem, see the section #Writing references, the parameter label=mylabel automatically inserts in the reference an anchor with label "mylabel".